Sometimes it’s difficult to determine how faithful the equivalents should be in the target language(s). There are many different ways of expressing the same message in another language. However, our strategy in dealing with literary works should be writer-oriented.
According to Catford’s categorization, in such cases a Rank-based method should be employed. Therefore, it can be called: grammatically adapted word-for-word equals.
Ø To be ornot to be, that is the question
Ø Seyn oder nicht seyn, Das ist die Frage
Ø Être ou n'être pas, voilà la question
Ø Boodan ya naboodan,mas’le een ast.
\ Structurally, the French piece is the most different one. While Voilà is a preposition, its equivalents are verbs.
\ Plus, the formation of negatives is more unusual in the language compared to the other systems.
\ Oder, as a conjunction, seems to be a two-syllable word, which is phonologically longer than its equals.
\ The Persian negative structure can be achieved by simply attaching na to the beginning of a verb. Unlike the French example, it should not be viewed as a process of assimilation.
\ Unlike the other systems, English requires an extra element for the formation of infinitives: to + base form